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Menya amateka y’ibibazo byabaye karande ku bavuga Ikinyarwanda muri RDC

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Imyaka ibaye mirongo, ikibazo cy’abavuga Ikinyarwanda ari insobe muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo, Zaïre cyangwa Congo kuko yose yabaye amazina y’icyo gihugu, kimwe mu binini muri Afurika.

 

Byageze aho no muri politiki y’icyo gihugu biba akavuyo, birananirana ku buryo nko mu myaka isaga 30 ishize cyagiye kiba inkomoko y’umutekano muke, guhindagurika kwa politiki n’ibindi.

Abaturage bavuga Ikinyarwanda bagize 5 % by’abaturage bose ba Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo. Biganje mu Burasirazuba bw’igihugu, muri Kivu y’Amajyepfo n’Amajyaruguru.

Amateka agaragaza ko aba baturage bamwe bisanze muri Congo kuko ubutaka bari batuyeho bwashyizwe kuri icyo gihugu buvuye ku Rwanda n’u Burundi ubwo hacibwaga imipaka mu nama y’i Berlin yagabanyije Afurika mu 1884.

Abandi bahagiye mu gihe cy’ubukoloni bajyanywe n’Ababiligi kujya gukora mu birombe by’amabuye y’agaciro no gushakira ubundi butunzi abakoloni, bagumayo gutyo.

Ikibazo cy’abanye-Congo bavuga Ikinyarwanda cyatangiye kuzamuka cyane nyuma y’ubwigenge bwa Congo mu 1960 ubwo hagabanywaga ubutaka, abiyita abanye-Congo gakondo bashaka kubwima abavuga Ikinyarwanda bafataga nk’Abanyamahanga.

Ntabwo byasakuje cyane kubera ko Congo yari ihanganye n’ibindi bibazo nk’intambara zo kuyiyomoraho, ubukene n’ibindi.

Byongeye gufata intera mu myaka ya 1970 nk’uko bigaragara mu nyandiko Making use of the past: The Rwandophone question and the ‘Balkanisation of the Congo’ yakozwe na Lars-Christopher Huening.

Icyo gihe, Mobutu Sese Seko wari Perezida yabihaye umurongo, hashyirwaho itegeko riha ubwenegihugu Abanye-Congo bose barimo Abanyarwanda n’Abarundi bageze muri icyo gihugu mbere ya 1950.

Bivugwa ko iri tegeko ryagizwemo uruhare n’Umunyarwanda Barthelemy Bisengimana wari Umuyobozi Mukuru ushinzwe ibiro bya Perezida Mobutu.

Mobutu yagerageje guha umurongo ikibazo cy’Abavuga Ikinyarwanda, ageze aho aganzwa na politiki

Mu myaka ya 1981 ubwo Mobutu na Bisengimana bashwanaga, byasubiye irudubi, hongera kuzamuka amajwi asaba ko abavuga Ikinyarwanda bamburwa ubwenegihugu. Hateguwe undi mushinga w’Itegeko uvuga ko uwemerewe ubwenegihugu ari uwageze muri icyo gihugu mbere y’ubukoloni. Icyakora iryo tegeko ntiryashyizwe mu bikorwa ariko urunturuntu rwatangiye kumvikana mu Banye-Congo, hatangira urwikekwe hagati y’abiswe aba gakondo n’abanyamahanga bavuga Ikinyarwanda.

Kubera igitsure cya Mobutu, ntabwo ivangura ryibasiye abavuga Ikinyarwanda mu myaka ya mbere ryagiye rigaragara ariko guhera mu 1990 ubwo yari ku gitutu cyo kwemera amashyaka menshi, yatangiye kuba iturufu yo kwikiza bamwe no kunezeza abandi.

Mobutu washinjwaga korohera abavuga Ikinyarwanda [Rwandophones] agakabya, yatangiye kwiyegereza abaturage gakondo mu gihugu hose, by’umwihariko muri Kivu zombi.

Hashinzwe icyiswe ‘Inama Nkuru y’Ubusugire’ (Conference Nationale Souveraine) yo kwiga ku hazaza h’igihugu kiyobowe na demokarasi ishingiye ku mashyaka menshi, aho kuba MPR ya Mobutu yonyine.

Mu nshingano z’iyi nama hari harimo gushyiraho Itegeko Nshinga rishya, Guverinoma, Inteko Ishinga Amategeko na Komisiyo y’Amatora. Ibiganiro by’iyi nama byagombaga kwitabirwa n’abayobozi mu nzego zose kugira ngo hasaswe inzobe.

Mu kwikanga ko abayobozi bamwe bashobora kwemeza ibihabanye n’ibyo ashaka, Mobutu yatangiye guhindura ubuyobozi bw’inzego z’ibanze ashyiramo abantu bafite ibisekuru bya kera mu gace bayoboramo, biha imbaraga abiyita ba gakondo.

Mu gihe cy’ibiganiro, ijambo rikomeye ryari rifitwe n’Abanye-Congo biyita aba gakondo n’ibyemezo bitowe bikaba ibibashyigikira. Mu byo bemeje harimo na rya tegeko ryo mu 1981 ry’uko abemerewe ubwenegihugu bwa Zaïre ari abahageze mbere ya 1885.

Ibyo byari bivuze ko abavuga Ikinyarwanda bahageze nyuma y’icyo gihe batemewe, bagomba gusubira aho baturutse cyangwa se bakahaba nk’impunzi.

Raporo Vangu yasutse umunyu mu gisebe

Ibinyamakuru bya Congo bizwiho kuryoshya inkuru byafashe amakaramu birandika, bitangira gutanga igihe ntarengwa Leta igomba kuba yirukaniye abanyamahanga biyise Abazayirwa ku ngufu, ubwo havugwaga Abanyarwanda.

Ku rundi ruhande, byavuzwe ko ari uburyo bwa Mobutu bwo gukina politiki yigizayo bamwe ngo ashimishe abandi, yirambire ku butegetsi.

Ibibazo by’urwango ku Banyarwanda byarushijeho gukara nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, ubwo abahoze mu ngabo za Leta ya Habyarimana (Ex FAR) bambukanaga intwaro muri Kivu zombi, bagaragiwe n’impunzi zisaga miliyoni ebyiri z’abahutu.

Ibyari amoko mu Rwanda byatangiye gucengera no muri Congo, inyigisho z’urwango rwibasiye Abatutsi kavukire muri ibyo bice zitangira gufata indi ntera.

Ex-FAR n’Interahamwe bakigera muri Congo benyegeje urwango abanye-Congo bangaga abavuga Ikinyarwanda

Bakomeje kwenyegeza urwango bavuga ko Abatutsi ari abantu babi bashaka kwigarurira akarere ngo bakaremo ubwami bwabo muri Afurika y’Ibiyaga Bigari, bityo ko bagomba gufatanyiriza hamwe bakabarwanya.

Abo basirikare bavanze n’Interahamwe niko bakoraga ubugizi bwa nabi ku baturage bagiye basanga batabiyumvamo, bituma Abanye-Congo b’andi moko barushaho kwanga urunuka abavuga Ikinyarwanda.

EX FAR ku bufatanye n’Abahutu bo muri Kivu y’Amajyaruguru, bagabye ibitero byinshi ku Batutsi bo muri utwo duce, bagamije kubikiza.

Ikinyamakuru Le Potentiel cyizwiho gukwirakwiza inkuru zinubira abavuga Ikinyarwanda muri Congo, tariki 5 Mutarama 1995 cyanditse ko EX FAR yigize Leta mu yindi.

Yaranditse iti “Impunzi z’Abanyarwanda nizo zisigaye zitanga amategeko muri Zaïre. Bigize abategetsi ba kariya gace […] abaturage gakondo bakuwe mu byabo ku ngufu n’impunzi z’Abahutu zifatanyije n’Abahutu b’iwacu.”

Ibintu byarushijeho kuba bibi ubwo Inteko Ishinga Amategeko ya Zaïre yashyiragaho Komisiyo igomba kwiga ku ngaruka impunzi z’Abahutu zagize ku baturage gakondo zasanze muri Zaïre.

Iyo raporo yiswe ‘Komisiyo Vangu’ iyobowe na Vangu Mambueni, yagegejwe ku Nteko muri Mata 1995, yarushijeho guteza umwiryane aho gukemura ibibazo.

Yagaragaje ko Abanyarwanda baba muri Congo bose nta n’umwe wahavukiye, ngo kuko mbere y’ubukoloni abahateraga bose ubwami gakondo muri Congo butashoboraga kubemera.

Raporo ya Vangu ahubwo yavuze ko Ababiligi aribo bazanye abavuga Ikinyarwanda bose muri Congo, bivuze ko nta munye-Congo n’umwe uvuga Ikinyarwanda wahabaga mbere y’ubukoloni.

Iyo raporo yanenzwe kugendera ku bitekerezo birimo urwango by’abaturage gakondo bo muri Kivu zombi aho gushingira ku bushakashatsi n’ubusesenguzi bwimbitse. Ni raporo yayobowe n’amarangamutima dore ko abayikoze nabo bari bafite uruhande babogamiyeho.

Hashingiwe ku myanzuronama yafashwe na Komisiyo Vangu, tariki 28 Mata 1995 Inteko Ishinga Amategeko ya Congo yatoye yemeza ko abanto bose bavuga Ikinyarwanda birukanwa mu gihugu kuko icyo bagamije ari akaga, ku gushinga igihugu cy’Abatutsi cyangwa icy’Abahutu muri Kivu zombi.

Iyo raporo yakurikiraniweho hafi n’abaturage benshi ba Congo ndetse byongera urwango bangaga abavuga Ikinyarwanda bose, ku buryo n’ababaga batekereza ko bamwe muri bo ari abavandimwe, batangiye guhindura imvugo.

Ibinyamakuru byaranditse karahava bihatira Leta ya Mobutu kwirukana abo banyamahanga ndetse bimwe bimushinja kuborohera.

Muri Kanama 1995, Leta ya Zaïre yirukanye ku butaka bwayo impunzi z’Abanyarwanda ibihumbi 15 ariko ibinyamakuru byakomeje kwandika bisaba ko bose bahashira.

Raporo ya Vangu yagaragaje ko Abanyamulenge na bo atari abenegihugu, ko ari impunzi z’Abanyarwanda zihinduye abanegihugu ku ngufu n’amayeri. Nabo byategetswe ko birukanwa hamwe n’abandi Banyarwanda bagasubira aho baturutse.

Ku rundi ruhande, u Rwanda rwo rwasabaga Zaïre gushishikariza abaturage barwo bashutswe na Ex Far gutaha, ikambura intwaro abazifite cyangwa se ikabashyira kure cyane y’umupaka warwo kuko bahungabanyaga umutekano.

Ku bijyanye no kwirukana n’abandi bavuga Ikinyarwanda, u Rwanda rwabyamaganye rwivuye inyuma.

Kuvwa 28 Ukwakira 1996 Perezida Pasteur Bizimungu yabwiye abanyamakuru ko “Congo niba ishaka kwirukana Abanyamulenge, ibirukanana n’ubutaka bwabo.”

Uko gushwiragiza by’umwihariko Abatutsi bo muri Congo bari bamaze iminsi bibasiwe n’andi moko baturanye, byatumye mu 1996 bihuza n’ingabo za Laurent Desire Kabila batangiza intambara yo gukuraho ubutegetsi bwa Perezida Mobutu yarangiye imukuyeho mu 1997.

Laurent Kabila akijya ku butegetsi, yagaragaje umuhate wo gushyigikira abavuga Ikinyarwanda bamufashije kugera ku butegetsi, gusa nyuma y’umwaka yarabihindutse

Nyuma yo gufata ubutegetsi nubwo benshi mu babumugejejeho ari Abanyarwanda n’Abanye-Congo bavuga Ikinyarwanda, Kabila yatangiye kubigizayo mu 1998 amaze gushwana n’u Rwanda, benshi bongera kwisanga mu bibazo nka mbere.

Muri politiki ya Congo hongeye kuzamuka umwuka w’urwango rwibasiye abavuga Ikinyarwanda, Leta ya Kabila yerekana ko ibibazo byose Congo ifite ari Abanyarwanda bari kubitera.

Na nyuma y’urupfu rwa Kabila mukuru, byarakomeje kugeza ubwo Laurent Nkunda yashingaga CNDP, avuga ko aharanira uburenganzira bw’abakoresha Ikinyarwanda muri Congo.

Amasezerano Congo yasinye yanze kuyashyira mu bikorwa

Nkunda na CNDP bagaragaje ko ikibazo gikomeye bafite ari uguhezwa, kugirirwa nabi no kwimwa ibindi byiza by’igihugu andi moko ahabwa.

Bararwanye ariko muri Werurwe 2009 Leta na CNDP bigera ku bwumvikane, ingabo za Nkunda zemererwa kujya mu za Leta, CNDP isigara ari umutwe wa politiki.

Mu matora ya Perezida ya 2011, CNDP yari inyuma ya Joseph Kabila icyakora mu 2012 byarahindutse, ibyo bari baremeranyije ijya kumushyigikira yanga kubishyira mu bikorwa ari byo byatumye havuka ‘M23’.

M23 guhera mu Ugushyingo 2012 yarwanye n’ingabo za Congo, ndetse uwo mutwe uza gufata umujyi wa Goma. Habayeho imirwano yinjiyemo ingabo za Loni ku ruhande rwa Congo, biza kurangira M23 isubiye inyuma ijya mu biganiro byasojwe mu 2013 muri Gicurasi, hasinywe amasezerano ya Nairobi, aho ingabo zagombaga kuvangwa, M23 ikaba umutwe wa politiki.

Igice kimwe cya M23 cyahungiye mu Rwanda, ikindi gihungira muri Uganda mu gihe hari hagitegerejwe ko Congo ishyira mu bikorwa ibyo yemeye.

Kugeza magingo aya Congo ntiyashyize mu bikorwa ibyo yemereye M23 ari na byo byatumye igice cyahungiye muri Uganda gihaguruka, gifata intwaro ngo kibutse Leta ya Felix Tshisekedi ko hari amasezerano batubahirije.

Byari no mu ntego za mbere za Tshisekedi kuko kugarura umutekano mu Burasirazuba bwa Congo biri mu byo yemereye abaturage ubwo yiyamamazaga mu 2018.

Laurent Nkunda yavugaga ko aharanira uburenganzira bw’abavuga Ikinyarwanda muri Congo

Inyeshyamba za M23 zivuga ko Congo yananiwe gushyira mu bikorwa ibyo yemeye
Src: IGIHE

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